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तपस्स्वाध्यायनिरतं तपस्वी वाग्विदां वरम् ।
नारदं परिपप्रच्छ वाल्मीकिर्मुनिपुङ्गवम् ।।1.1.1।।

तपस्वी ascetic, वाल्मीकि: Valmiki, तप: स्वाध्यायनिरतम् highly delighted in the practice of religious austerities and study of vedas, वाग्विदां वरम् eloquent among the knowledgeable, मुनिपुङ्गवम् pre-eminent among sages, नारदम् Narada, परिपप्रच्छ enquired.

Ascetic Valmiki enquired of Narada, pre-eminent among sages, who is ever engaged in the practice of religious austerities (for higher spiritual knowledge) and study of vedas (till its indepth meaning is known) and eloquent among those knowledgeable in four vedas and six vedangas.

कोन्वस्मिन्साम्प्रतं लोके गुणवान्कश्च वीर्यवान् ।
धर्मज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च सत्यवाक्यो दृढव्रत:।।1.1.2।।

अस्मिन् लोके in this world, साम्प्रतम् now, गुणवान् endowed with excellent qualities, क: नु who indeed, वीर्यवांश्च with prowess, धर्मज्ञ: च knower of righteousness, कृतज्ञ: च grateful (who remembers even little help done by others), सत्यवाक्य: truthful in his statements, दृढव्रत: firm in his vows (till such time he achieves the results), क: who?

"In this world of now who is that great person endowed with excellent qualities, prowess, knowledge of righteousness, gratitude, truth and firmness in practice of vows?"

चारित्रेण च को युक्तस्सर्वभूतेषु को हित: ।
विद्वान्क: कस्समर्थश्च कश्चैकप्रियदर्शन: ।।1.1.3।।

क: who?, चारित्रेण with good conduct, युक्त: is endowed, क: who?, सर्वभूतेषु for all living beings, हित: benefactor, क: who?, विद्वान् learned man (knower of everything which is to be known), क: who?, समर्थ: च competent (capable of doing things which cannot be done by others), क: who? एकप्रियदर्शन: च solely delightful in appearance to everyone,

Who is that great person endowed with good conduct, who is the benefactor of all living beings, who is a learned man (knower of everything which is to be known), competent (capable of doing things which cannot be done by others) and who is solely delightful in appearance (causing happiness to everyone)?

आत्मवान्को जितक्रोधो द्युतिमान्कोऽनसूयक: ।
कस्य बिभ्यति देवाश्च जातरोषस्य संयुगे ।।1.1.4।।

आत्मवान् self-restrained, क: who?, जितक्रोध: one who has conquered anger, द्युतिमान् one who is endowed with splendour, अनसूयक: one who is free from envy (envy - depicting one's merits as weak points), क: who?, जातरोषस्य excited to wrath, कस्य to whom, संयुगे in the battle, देवा: च celestial beings, devatas, बिभ्यति are afraid of.

Who is that one who is courageous, conquered anger etc, endowed with splendour and free from envy? Who is that, when excited to wrath, even the devatas are afraid of (let alone foes)?

एतदिच्छाम्यहं श्रोतुं परं कौतूहलं हि मे ।
महर्षे त्वं समर्थोऽसि ज्ञातुमेवंविधं नरम् ।।1.1.5।।

एतत् this, अहम् I, श्रोतुम् to listen, इच्छामि am desirous, मे my, कौतूहलम् curiosity, परं हि is great, महर्षे O! Maharshi, त्वम् you, एवंविधम् of such (virtues), नरम् man, ज्ञातुम् to know, समर्थ: असि are competent.

I am desirous of listening to this one O! Maharshi, you are competent to know about a man of such virtues. Great is my curiosity to know.

श्रुत्वा चैतऺऺत्ऺिऺत्रलोकज्ञो वाल्मीकेर्नारदो वच: ।
श्रूयतामिति चामन्त्ऺत्र्य प्रहृष्टो वाक्यमब्रवीत् ।।1.1.6।।

त्रिलोकज्ञ: cognizant of three worlds, नारद: Narada, वाल्मीके: Valmiki's, एतत् वच: these words, श्रुत्वा च having heard, श्रूयताम् इति "Listen to me", चामन्त्ऺत्र्य च having invited, प्रहृष्ट: was delighted, वाक्यम् words, अब्रवीत् spoke.

Hearing the words of Valmiki, Narada, cognizant of three worlds, having invited him to sit before him said with delight "Listen to me" and spoke-

बहवो दुर्लभाश्चैव ये त्वया कीर्तिता गुणा: ।
मुने वक्ष्याम्यहं बुद्ध्वा तैर्युक्तश्श्रूयतान्नर: ।।1.1.7।।

मुने O!Sage Valmiki, बहव: many, दुर्लभा: च एव rare indeed are the ordinary people endowed with such qualities, ये गुणा: those qualities, त्वया by you, कीर्तिता: described, तै: with those qualities, युक्त: endowed with, नर: man, श्रूयताम् listen, अहम् I, बुद्ध्वा having ascertained, वक्ष्यामि shall tell you.

O!Sage Valmiki, many are the qualities described by you and rare are the ordinary people endowed with such qualities. However, I shall tell you after ascertaining them. Listen carefully.

इक्ष्वाकुवंशप्रभवो रामो नाम जनैश्श्रुत: ।
नियतात्मा महावीर्यो द्युतिमान्धृतिमान् वशी ।।1.1.8।।

इक्ष्वाकुवंशप्रभव: born in the race of king Ikshvaku, राम: नाम known as Rama (one who delights others), जनै: by people, श्रुत: is heard, नियतात्मा steady natured (meaning thereby immutable form), महावीर्य: incomprehensible prowess, द्युतिमान् self-effulgent, धृतिमान् self-commanding, वशी subjecting the senses (subjecting the entire world under his control).

People have heard his name as Rama, who was born in the race of king Ikshvaku, having steady nature, possessing incomprehensible prowess, self-effulgent, self-commanding and subjecting senses under his control.

बुद्धिमान्नीतिमान्वाग्मी श्रीमान् शत्रुनिबर्हण: ।
विपुलांसो महाबाहु: कम्बुग्रीवो महाहनु: ।।1.1.9।। 1-1-9-

बुद्धिमान् great intellectual, नीतिमान् learned in ethical (statecraft) philosophy, वाग्मी proficient in speeches, श्रीमान् possessing vast auspiciousness, शत्रुनिबर्हण: destroyer of foes (sins), विपुलांस: broad shouldered, महाबाहु: strong-armed, कम्बुग्रीव: possessing conch-shaped neck, महाहनु: having prominent and strong cheeks.

He (Sri Rama) is a great intellectual, learned in moral philosophy, proficient in speeches (in all kinds of knowledge), possessing vast auspiciousness, destroyer of foes (sins), broad-shouldered, strong armed, possessing conch-shaped neck and has prominent and strong cheeks.

महोरस्को महेष्वासो गूढजत्रुररिन्दमः ।
आजानुबाहुस्सुशिरास्सुललाटस्सुविक्रमः ।।1.1.10।।

महोरस्क: having broad chest, महेष्वासः armed with a great bow (meaning thereby having strong body to carry a bow), गूढजत्रुः has fleshy collar bones, अरिन्दमः is destroyer of foes (sins), आजानुबाहु: has arms extending upto knees, सुशिराः head with noble qualities, सुललाटः has a large and beautiful forehead, सुविक्रमः is endowed with mighty prowess.

(Sri Rama) has a broad chest, is armed with a great bow, has fleshy collar bones, has long arms extending upto knees, has a noble head, a graceful forehead and is endowed with mighty prowess. He is the destroyer of foes (sins).

समस्समविभक्ताङ्गस्स्निग्धवर्ण: प्रतापवान् ।
पीनवक्षा विशालाक्षो लक्ष्मीवान् शुभलक्षणः ।। 1.1.11।।

समः neither too tall nor too short, समविभक्ताङ्ग: has well-proportioned limbs, स्निग्धवर्णः has shining complexion, प्रतापवान् is mighty and powerful, पीनवक्षा: strong well-developed chest, विशालाक्षः has expansive eyes, लक्ष्मीवान् lustrous body, शुभलक्षणः has auspicious qualities (according to science of palmistry).

(Sri Rama) mighty and powerful, has a well-proportioned body, neither tall nor short, bluish-hued skin, well-developed chest, expansive eyes, lustrous body and of auspicious qualities.

धर्मज्ञस्सत्यसन्धश्च प्रजानां च हिते रतः ।
यशस्वी ज्ञानसम्पन्नश्शुचिर्वश्यस्समाधिमान् ।।1.1.12।।

धर्मज्ञ: knower of duties (of protecting those who take refuge in him) of life, सत्यसन्ध: firm in his vows, प्रजानाम् for his subjects, हिते doing good, रतः intent on, यशस्वी renowned, ज्ञानसम्पन्नः omniscient, शुचिः pure and devout, वश्यः obedient to elders (or accessible to those who are dependent on him), समाधिमान् meditating on the means of protecting those who took refuge in him.

(Sri Rama) is a knower of duties of life. He is firm in his vows, ever intent on doing good for his subjects, omniscient and pure. He is obedient to elders (or accessible to those who are dependent on him) and ever meditating on the means of protecting those who take refuge in him.

प्रजापतिसमश्श्रीमान् धाता रिपुनिषूदनः ।
रक्षिता जीवलोकस्य धर्मस्य परिरक्षिता ।।1.1.13।।

प्रजापतिसमः equal to Brahma, श्रीमान् surpassed the entire world in auspiciousness, धाता sustainer of this entire world, रिपुनिषूदनः destroyer of enemies, रक्षिता protector, जीवलोकस्य of all living beings, धर्मस्य of code of morals, परिरक्षिता protector.

Equal to Brahma and surpassing the entire world in auspiciousness, Sri Rama is the sustainer of this world, destroyer of enemies and protector of all living beings and of the moral code.

रक्षिता स्वस्य धर्मस्य स्वजनस्य च रक्षिता ।
वेदवेदाङ्गतत्त्वज्ञो धनुर्वेदे च निष्ठितः ।।1.1.14।।

स्वस्य of his own, धर्मस्य duties of a king, रक्षिता protector, स्वजनस्य च of his own subjects, रक्षिता protector, वेदवेदाङ्गतत्त्वज्ञ: knowledgeable in the true nature of vedas and vedangas, धनुर्वेदे च in military science, one of the upavedas (a great archer), निष्ठित: accomplished.

Sri Rama has performed his own duties of a king and protected his own subjects. He is knowledgeable in the true nature of vedas and accomplished in military science (one of the upavedas). He is a great archer.

सर्वशास्त्रार्थतत्त्वज्ञस्स्मृतिमान्प्रतिभानवान् ।
सर्वलोकप्रियस्साधुरदीनात्मा विचक्षणः ।।1.1.15।।

सर्वशास्त्रार्थतत्त्वज्ञ: knower of the true meaning of all scriptures, स्मृतिमान् has infalliable retentive memory, प्रतिभानवान् is talented (possessing brightness of conception), सर्वलोकप्रियः is beloved of all people, साधु: well-disposed and courteous (even towards those who have done harm), अदीनात्मा unperturbed mind (even in times of extreme grief), विचक्षणः has dicrimination (is circumspect in doing right things in right time).

Sri Rama knows the true meaning of all scriptures and has infalliable retentive memory. He is talented (possessing brightness of conception). He is beloved and well-disposed towards all people (and courteous even towards those who have done harm). He has an unperturbed mind even in times of extreme grief and is circumspect in doing right things at the right time.

सर्वदाभिगतस्सद्भिस्समुद्र इव सिन्धुभिः ।
आर्यस्सर्वसमश्चैव सदैकप्रियदर्शनः ।।1.1.16।।

समुद्रः sea, सिन्धुभिः the rivers, इव like, सद्भिः good persons, सर्वदा ever, अभिगतः is approachable, आर्यः man of virtue, सर्वसमः च एव having equitable dispostition towards all, सदैकप्रियदर्शनः always has delightful countenance.

Sri Rama, like sea to rivers, is accessible to men of virtue and has equal disposition towards all. He always has a delightful countenance.

स च सर्वगुणोपेत: कौसल्यानन्दवर्धन: ।
समुद्र इव गाम्भीर्ये धैर्येण हिमवानिव ।।1.1.17।।

कौसल्यानन्दवर्धन: he, who is enhancing the joys of Kausalya, स: च he also, सर्वगुणोपेत: endowed with all virtues, गाम्भीर्ये in depth of his thoughts, समुद्र: इव like a sea, धैर्येण in fortitude, हिमवान् इव like Himavat mountain.

Enhancing the joys of Kausalya, Sri Rama is endowed with all virtues. He is like a sea in depth of his thoughts and like Himavat mountain in fortitude.

विष्णुना सदृशो वीर्ये सोमवत्प्रियदर्शन: ।
कालाग्निसदृश: क्रोधे क्षमया पृथिवीसम: ।।1.1.18।।
धनदेन समस्त्यागे सत्ये धर्म इवापर: ।

वीर्ये In prowess, विष्णुना सदृश: similar to visnu, सोमवत् in appearance as is full Moon, प्रियदर्शन: pleasing to the sight, क्रोधे in anger, कालाग्निसदृश: like destructive fire at the end of the world, क्षमया in patience, पृथिवीसम: equal to earth, त्यागे in charity, धनदेन सम: like Kubera, सत्ये in truth, अपर: धर्म: इव like another god of justice.

In prowess, Sri Rama is similar to visnu, pleasing to the sight as is full Moon, he is like destructive fire at the end of the world in anger, he is equal to earth in patience, he is like Kubera in chartiy and he is like another god of justice in truth.

तमेवं गुणसम्पन्नं रामं सत्यपराक्रमम् ।।1.1.19।।
ज्येष्ठं श्रेष्ठगुणैर्युक्तं प्रियं दशरथस्सुतम् । 1-1-19-
प्रकृतीनां हितैर्युक्तं प्रकृतिप्रियकाम्यया ।।1.1.20।।
यौवराज्येन संयोक्तुमैच्छत्प्रीत्या महीपति: । 1-1-20-

महीपति: दशरथ: lord of earth, Dasaratha, एवं गुणसम्पन्नम् him who was possessing all such good qualities, सत्यपराक्रमम् him who had not a vain prowess, श्रेष्ठगुणै: with excellent virtues, युक्तम् endowed with, प्रियम् beloved, प्रकृतीनाम् for his subjects, हितै: with good deeds, युक्तम् endowed with, ज्येष्ठम् eldest, सुतम् son, तं रामम् Sri Rama, प्रकृतिप्रियकाम्यया ever intent on the welfare of the people, प्रीत्या with affection, यौवराज्येन heir-apparent, संयोक्तुम् to install, ऐच्छत् wished.

King Dasaratha, with a desire to promote the welfare of the people, decided to install as heir-apparent, his eldest and affectionate son Sri Rama, possessing all good qualities and excellent prowess, endowed with excellent virtues, beloved and ever intent on the welfare of the people.

तस्याभिषेकसम्भारान्दृष्ट्वा भार्याऽथ कैकयी ।।1.1.21।।
पूर्वं दत्तवरा देवी वरमेनमयाचत ।
विवासनं च रामस्य भरतस्याभिषेचनम् ।।1.1.22।।

अथ thereafter, तस्य Rama's, अभिषेकसम्भारान् preparations for the installation, दृष्ट्वा having seen, पूर्वम् previously, दत्तवरा was promised with boons, भार्या wife, देवी queen,
कैकयी Kaikeyi, रामस्य Rama's, विवासनम् exile, भरतस्य of Bharata, अभिषेचनम् enthronement, वरम् boon, एनम् अयाचत begged of Dasaratha.
Thereafter, having seen the preparations for installation of Rama, queen Kaikeyi who had been promised earlier with boons by Dasaratha demanded of him the exile of Rama and enthronement of Bharata.

स सत्यवचनाद्राजा धर्मपाशेन संयत: ।
विवासयामास सुतं रामं दशरथ: प्रियम् ।।1.1.23।।

स: दशरथ: Dasaratha, सत्यवचनात् due to being truthful to his word, धर्मपाशेन by the bond of duty, संयत: restrained, प्रियं सुतम् beloved son, रामम् Rama, विवासयामास sent (to the forest).

Dasaratha, truthful to his word and restrained by the bond of duty, sent his beloved son Rama to the forest.

स जगाम वनं वीर: प्रतिज्ञामनुपालयन्।
पितुर्वचननिर्देशात्कैकेय्या: प्रियकारणात् ।।1.1.24।।

वीर: स: that mighty Sri Rama, कैकेय्या: Kaikeyi's, प्रियकारणात् with a view to gratify, पितु: father's, वचननिर्देशात् by the word of command, प्रतिज्ञाम् his promise, अनुपालयन् while obeying, वनम् forest, जगाम went.

Mighty Sri Rama, with a view to gratify Kaikeyi and obeying the word of command of his father, went to the forest to keep up the promise given by the king to Kaikeyi.

तं व्रजन्तं प्रियो भ्राता लक्ष्मणोऽनुजगाम ह ।
स्नेहाद्विनयसम्पन्नस्सुमित्रानन्दवर्धन: ।।1.1.25।।
भ्रातरं दयितो भ्रातुस्सौभ्रात्रमनुदर्शयन् ।

विनयसम्पन्न: endowed with modesty, भ्रातु: for brother Rama, दयित: beloved, प्रिय: भ्राता brother with natural affection, सुमित्रानन्दवर्धन: one who enhances the joy of Sumitra, लक्ष्मण: Lakshmana, सौभ्रात्रम् affectionate brotherhood, अनुदर्शयन् showing, व्रजन्तम् departing to the forest, तं भ्रातरम् his brother Rama, स्नेहात् out of affection, अनुजगाम ह followed.

Prince Lakshmana is beloved to his brother Rama. He has natural affection towards Rama. He is endowed with modesty. He enhances the joy of his mother Sumitra. Displaying his affectionate brotherhood, he followed Rama who was departing to the forest.

रामस्य दयिता भार्या नित्यं प्राणसमा हिता ।।1.1.26।।
जनकस्य कुले जाता देवमायेव निर्मिता ।
सर्वलक्षणसम्पन्ना नारीणामुत्तमा वधू: ।।1.1.27।।
सीताप्यनुगता रामं शशिनं रोहिणी यथा ।

रामस्य for Rama, दयिता beloved, भार्या wife, प्राणसमा equal to his vital breath, नित्यम् always, हिता doing fit and proper acts beneficial to him, जनकस्य king Janaka's, कुले in the race, जाता born, निर्मिता created, देवमायेव like Maya Mohini, the assumed form of visnuhnu, सर्वलक्षणसम्पन्ना endowed with all auspicious characteristics, नारीणाम् among women, उत्तमा the foremost, वधू: daughter-in-law (of Dasaratha), सीतापि Sita also, रोहिणी Rohini, (one of the several daughters of Daksha and consort of moon) शशिनम् यथा like moon, रामम् Rama, अनुगता followed.

Born in the race of king Janaka and daughter-in-law of Dasaratha, Sita is the beloved spouse of Rama and equal to his vital breath. She always does fit and proper acts beneficial to Rama. She is endowed with auspicious characteristics (as mentioned in the science of palmistry). She is foremost among women. She also followed Rama like Rohini followed the Moon.

पौरैरनुगतो दूरं पित्रा दशरथेन च ।।1.1.28।।
शृङ्गिबेरपुरे सूतं गङ्गाकूले व्यसर्जयत् ।
गुहमासाद्य धर्मात्मा निषादाधिपतिं प्रियम् ।।1.1.29।।
गुहेन सहितो रामो लक्ष्मणेन च सीतया ।

पौरै: by citizens, पित्रा दशरथेन च by his father Dasaratha also, दूरम् for a long distance, अनुगत: followed, धर्मात्मा राम: Rama of righteous nature (the protector of those who take refuge in him), गङ्गाकूले on the bank of river Ganga, शृङ्गिबेरपुरे at Shrungiberapura, निषादाधिपतिम् the king of Nishadas, प्रियम् endeared to him, गुहम् Guha, आसाद्य having approached, गुहेन along with Guha, लक्ष्मणेन by Lakshmana, सीतया च and by Sita, सहित: accompanied सूतम् charioteer Sumantra, व्यसर्जयत् sent back.

The citizens and Dasaratha followed Rama for a long distance. Rama of righteous nature (the protector of those who take refuge in him) having approached Guha, the king of Nishadas, at Shrungiberapura had sent back charioteer Sumantra. Rama accompanied by Sita and Lakshmana crossed river Ganga.

ते वनेन वनं गत्वा नदीस्तीर्त्वा बहूदका: ।।1.1.30।।
चित्रकूटमनुप्राप्य भरद्वाजस्य शासनात् ।
रम्यमावसथं कृत्वा रममाणा वने त्रय: ।।1.1.31।।
देवगन्धर्वसङ्काशास्तत्र ते न्यवसन् सुखम् ।

ते they, वनेन from one forest, वनम् to another forest, गत्वा having gone, बहूदका: नदी: deep and broad rivers with plenty of waters, तीर्त्वा having crossed, भरद्वाजस्य sage Bharadwaja's, शासनात् order, चित्रकूटम् Chitrakuta mountain, अनुप्राप्य having reached, रम्यम् delightful, आवसथम् abode (a hut made of leaves), कृत्वा having constructed, ते they (having enjoyed such comforts), त्रय: three, तत्र वने in the forest located in Chitrakuta mountain, रममाणा: enjoying, देवगन्धर्वसङ्काशा: resembling devas and gandharvas, सुखम् happily, न्यवसन् dwelt.

Moving from one forest to another and crossing deep and broad rivers with plenty of waters, reached the Chitrakuta mountain by the command of sage Bharadwaja. They constructed a hut made of leaves in the forest located in Chitrakuta mountain. They dwelt there happily resembling devas and gandharvas.

चित्रकूटं गते रामे पुत्रशोकातुरस्तथा ।।1.1.32।।
राजा दशरथस्स्वर्गं जगाम विलपन्सुतम् ।

तथा in that way, रामे when Rama, चित्रकूटम् गते had set out to Chitrakuta, पुत्रशोकातुर: stricken by the grief over the separation from his son, राजा दशरथ: king Dasaratha, सुतम् about his son, विलपन् wailing, स्वर्गम् heavens, जगाम went.

When Rama set out to Chitrakuta, king Dasaratha, stricken by the grief over the separation from his son, was wailing about his son and departed to heavens.

मृते तु तस्मिन्भरतो वसिष्ठप्रमुखैर्द्विजै: ।। 1.1.33।।
नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबल:।

तस्मिन् when he (Dasaratha), मृते had died, वसिष्ठप्रमुखै: द्विजै: with Vasishta and other brahmins, राज्याय to rule the kingdom, नियुज्यमान: had been ordered, महाबल: mighty, भरत: तु Bharata, राज्यम् kingdom, नैच्छत् did not desire to rule .

After Dasaratha had passed away, mighty Bharata did not desire to rule the kingdom eventhough ordered by Vasishta and other brahmins to rule the kingdom.

स जगाम वनं वीरो रामपादप्रसादक: ।। 1.1.34 ।।

वीर: The brave person who had conquered envy and hatred, रामपादप्रसादक: in order to propitiate Rama's feet, स he, वनं forest, जगाम went.

The brave Bharata, who had conquered envy and hatred went to the forest in order to propitiate Rama's feet.

गत्वा तु सुमहात्मानं रामं सत्यपराक्रमम् ।
अयाचद्भ्रातरं राममार्यभावपुरस्कृत: ।।1.1.35।।

आर्यभावपुरस्कृत: worshipped with reverence, सुमहात्मानम् highly respectable, सत्यपराक्रमम् truthful chivalry, गत्वा having reached, रामम् Rama, भ्रातरं रामम् brother Rama, अयाचत् implored.

Having reached Rama, Bharata worshipping with reverence implored his brother Rama, who was highly pleasing, highly respectable and of truthful chivalry.

त्वमेव राजा धर्मज्ञ इति रामं वचोऽब्रवीत् ।

धर्मज्ञ: knower of righteousness, त्वमेव you alone, राजा इति should be the king, रामम् addressing Rama, वच: words, अब्रवीत् spoke.

Bharata addressing Rama said "You are knower of righteousness. You alone should be the king (meaning that when the elder brother is alive, the younger brother is prohibited from ruling the kingdom)".

रामोऽपि परमोदारस्सुमुखस्सुमहायशा: ।
न चैच्छत्पितुरादेशाद्राज्यं रामो महाबल: ।।1.1.36।।

रामोऽपि eventhough he delights everybody, परमोदारोऽपि eventhough exceedingly generous (in fulfilling the desires like absorption in divinity etc, of those who take refuge in him), सुमुखोऽपि eventhough having cheerful countenance (when somebody approaches him for favours), राम Rama, सुमहायशा: greatly renowned (because of dispensing charities), महाबल: highly capable (in fulfilling the desires of others), पितु: father's, आदेशात् by command, राज्यम् kingdom, नैच्छत् refused to accept.

Rama delights everybody. He is exceedingly generous and possesses cheerful countenance. He is greatly renowned and highly capable. Eventhough possessing such great qualities, he refused to accept the kingdom in accordance with the command of his father.

पादुके चास्य राज्याय न्यासं दत्वा पुन:पुन: ।
निवर्तयामास ततो भरतं भरताग्रज: ।।1.1.37।।

भरताग्रज: Bharata's elder brother, Rama, राज्याय to rule the kingdom, अस्य to him, पादुके his own sandals, न्यासम् in deposit, as symbol of authority, दत्वा having given, तत: thereafter, पुन:पुन: repeatedly, भरतम् Bharata, निवर्तयामास persuaded him to return to the capital.

Having handed over his own sandals to Bharata in deposit as symbol of authority for ruling the kingdom, Rama persuaded Bharata again and again to return to the capital.

स काममनवाप्यैव रामपादावुपस्पृशन् ।।1.1.38।।
नन्दिग्रामेऽकरोद्राज्यं रामागमनकाङ्क्षया ।

स: Bharata, कामम् desire, अनवाप्यैव without fulfilling only, रामपादौ sandals of Rama, उपस्पृशन् touching with reverence, रामागमनकाङ्क्षया eagerly awaiting the return of Rama, नन्दिग्रामे in Nandigrama, राज्यम् अकरोत् ruled the kingdom.

Without fulfilling his desire of taking Rama back, Bharata, serving the sandals of Rama with reverence ruled the kingdom from Nandigrama, desirous of Rama's return.

गते तु भरते श्रीमान् सत्यसन्धो जितेन्द्रिय: ।।1.1.39।।
रामस्तु पुनरालक्ष्य नागरस्य जनस्य च ।
तत्रागमनमेकाग्रो दण्डकान्प्रविवेश ह ।।1.1.40।।

भरते when Bharata, गते तु had gone, श्रीमान् one possessing brightness, सत्यसन्ध: steadfast in his vows, जितेन्द्रिय: conquered the senses, राम: तु Rama, नागरस्य जनस्य च of city-dwelling citizens', पुन: again, तत्र in that Chitrakuta mountain, आगमनम् arrival, आलक्ष्य perceiving, एकाग्र: with undivided concentration of mind and resoluteness (to fulfill the promise given to his father), दण्डकान् Dandaka forest, प्रविवेश ह entered.

When Bharata had departed, Sri Rama, possessing brightness and conquered senses, steadfast in his vows, perceiving that the citizens from the city have arrived there again following Bharata, entered Dandaka forest with undivided concentration of mind and resoluteness (as a consequence there would not be breach of his promise).

प्रविश्य तु महारण्यं रामो राजीवलोचनः ।
विराधं राक्षसं हत्वा शरभङ्गं ददर्श ह ।।1.1.41।।
सुतीक्ष्णं चाप्यगस्त्यं च अगस्त्यभ्रातरं तथा ।

राजीवलोचनः lotus-eyed, रामः Rama, महारण्यम् dreary forest (Dandakaranya) प्रविश्य तु having entered, विराधम् Viradha, राक्षसम् Rakshasa, हत्वा after slaying, शरभङ्गम् sage Sarabhanga, सुतीक्ष्णं च also sage Sutikshna, अगस्त्यं च sage Agastya, तथा and, अगस्त्यभ्रातरं च brother of
sage Agastya, ददर्श ह saw.

Having entered that dense forest Dandakaranya, Rama slew Viradha and saw the sages Sarabhanga, Sutikshna, Agastya and brother of sage Agastya.

अगस्त्यवचनाच्चैव जग्राहैन्द्रं शरासनम् ।।1.1.42।।
खड्गं च परमप्रीतस्तूणी चाक्षयसायकौ ।

अगस्त्यवचनात् च एव as directed by sage Agastya, ऐन्द्रम् given by Indra, शरासनम् bow, खड्गं च a sword, अक्षयसायकौ inexhaustible arrows, तूणी च and quivers, परमप्रीतः extremely delighted, जग्राह received.

As directed by sage Agastya Rama with extreme delight took possession of a bow, a sword and quivers with inexhaustible arrows. All these were given to sage Agastya by Indra.

वसतस्तस्य रामस्य वने वनचरैस्सह ।
ऋषयोऽभ्यागमन्सर्वे वधायासुररक्षसाम् ।।1.1.43।।

तस्य रामस्य when Rama, वने in that forest (in the hermitage of sage Sarabhanga), वसत: was dwelling, सर्वे ऋषय: all the ascetics, वनचरैः सह along with those inhabiting the forest, असुररक्षसाम् asuras and rakshasas (seizing upon the lives), वधाय for destruction, अभ्यागमन् approached.

While Rama was dwelling in the forest (in the hermitage of sage Sarabhanga), all the ascetics together with those inhabiting the forest approached Rama requesting for the destruction of the asuras and rakshasas seizing upon their lives.

स तेषां प्रतिशुश्राव राक्षसानां तथा वने ।।1.1.44।।
प्रतिज्ञातश्च रामेण वधस्संयति रक्षसाम् ।
ऋषीणामग्निकल्पानां दण्डकारण्यवासिनाम् ।।1.1.45।।

स: Rama, राक्षसानाम् for rakshsas (abode of), वने in that forest, तेषां to those asetics, तथा that prayer, प्रतिशुश्राव assented, ऋषीणाम् of the ascetics, अग्निकल्पानाम् in lustre resembling flaming fire, दण्डकारण्यवासिनाम् inhabitants of Dandakaranya, संयति in the battle, रक्षसाम् of rakshasas, वधश्च slaying also, रामेण by Rama, प्रतिज्ञातः was promised.

Rama assented the prayers of those ascetics living in that forest inhabited by rakshasas. Rama promised those inhabitants of Dandakaranya, whose lustre resembles flaming fire, to slay those rakshasas.

तेन तत्रैव वसता जनस्थाननिवासिनी ।
विरूपिता शूर्पणखा राक्षसी कामरूपिणी ।।1.1.46।।

तत्रैव वसता while living in that place itself, तेन by Rama, जनस्थाननिवासिनी resident of Janasthana area (of Dandakaranya), कामरूपिणी capable of assuming any form at will, राक्षसी शूर्पणखा female demon Surpanakha, विरूपिता was deformed.

While living in that Dandakaranya forest, a female demon Surpanakha living in Janasthana area (resting place for the army of Ravana) of Dandakaranya and capable of assuming any form at will was deformed by Rama.

ततश्शूर्पणखावाक्यादुद्युक्तान्सर्वराक्षसान् ।
खरं त्रिशिरसं चैव दूषणं चैव राक्षसम् ।।1.1.47।।
निजघान वने रामस्तेषां चैव पदानुगान् ।

ततः thereafter, शूर्पणखावाक्यात् (instigated) by the words of Surpanakha, उद्युक्तान् ready for a battle, सर्वराक्षसान् all the rakshasas, खरम् एव Khara only, त्रिशिरसं च Trisira also, दूषणम् Dushana, राक्षसं च एव rakshasa also, तेषाम् their, पदानुगान् च एव followers also, राम: Rama, वने in the forest, निजघान killed.

Thereafter, Rama killed all the rakshasas, Khara, Trisira, and Dushana and their followers in a battle who were instigated by the words of Surpanakha.

वने तस्मिन्निवसता जनस्थाननिवासिनाम् ।।1.1.48।।
रक्षसां निहतान्यासन्सहस्राणि चतुर्दश ।

तस्मिन् वने in that forest, निवसता by Rama who was living, जनस्थाननिवासिनाम् of the inhabitants of Janasthana, रक्षसाम् of rakshasas, चतुर्दशसहस्राणि fourteen thousand of them, निहतानि आसन् were killed.

Fourteen thousand rakshasas who were inhabitants of Janasthana, were killed by Rama while living in that forest.

ततो ज्ञातिवधं श्रुत्वा रावणः क्रोधमूर्छितः ।।1.1.49।।
सहायं वरयामास मारीचं नाम राक्षसम् ।

तत: thereafter, रावणः Ravana, ज्ञातिवधम् slaughter of fellow rakshasas, श्रुत्वा having heard, क्रोधमूर्छितः became violent with anger, मारीचं नाम named Maricha, राक्षसम् rakshasa, सहायम् help, वरयामास sought for.

Hearing the slaughter of fellow rakshasas, Ravana became violent with anger and sought the help of a rakshasa named Maricha.

वार्यमाणस्सुबहुशो मारीचेन स रावणः ।।1.1.50।।
न विरोधो बलवता क्षमो रावण तेन ते ।

"रावण O Ravana!, बलवता with that mighty and powerful (because of slaying of Khara etc. rakshasas), तेन with that Rama, विरोध: hostilities, ते to you, न क्षम: is not proper" in this way, मारीचेन by Maricha, सुबहुश: well in many ways, वार्यमाणः dissuaded, स: रावण: that Ravana.

That Ravana was repeatedly dissuaded by Maricha in this way saying, "O Ravana! It is not proper for you to enter into hostilities with mighty and powerful Rama who has killed Khara, etc. and fourteen thousand rakshasas".

अनादृत्य तु तद्वाक्यं रावण: कालचोदित: ।।1.1.51।।
जगाम सह मारीचस्तस्याश्रमपदं तदा ।

रावणः Ravana, कालचोदितः incited by destiny, तद्वाक्यम् those words, अनादृत्य तु disregarding, सहमारीचः followed by Maricha, तस्य आश्रमपदम् towards his hermitage, तदा then, जगाम went.

Disregarding the words of Maricha, Ravana incited by fate, had gone towards the hermitage of Rama along with Maricha.

तेन मायाविना दूरमपवाह्य नृपात्मजौ ।।1.1.52।।
जहार भार्यां रामस्य गृध्रं हत्वा जटायुषम् ।

मायाविना by the deceitful, तेन by him (Maricha), नृपात्मजौ princes (Rama and Lakshmana), दूरम् far away, अपवाह्य drawing them away, जटायुषम् Jatayu, गृध्रम् vulture, हत्वा having killed, रामस्य Rama's, भार्याम् wife, Sita, जहार carried away.

Ravana, with the help of deceitful Maricha drew Rama and Lakshmana far away from their hermitage and having killed vulture Jatayu, abducted Sita, the wife of Rama.

गृध्रं च निहतं दृष्ट्वा हृतां श्रुत्वा च मैथिलीम् ।।1.1.53।।
राघवश्शोकसन्तप्तो विललापाकुलेन्द्रिय: ।

राघव: Rama, निहतम् struck down, गृध्रम् eagle Jatayu, दृष्ट्वा having seen, मैथिलीम् the
princess of Mithila, Sita, हृताम् abducted, श्रुत्वा च having heard (from Jatayu), शोकसन्तप्त: distressed with grief, आकुलेन्द्रियः with obscured senses, विललाप bewailed.

Rama, having seen the eagle Jatayu struck down and heard from Jatayu that Sita had been abducted by Ravana, was distressed with grief and bewailed with obscured senses.

ततस्तेनैव शोकेन गृध्रं दग्ध्वा जटायुषम् ।।1.1.54।।
मार्गमाणो वने सीतां राक्षसं सन्ददर्श ह ।
कबन्धन्नाम रूपेण विकृतं घोरदर्शनम् ।।1.1.55।।

तेनैव शोकेन pervaded by that sorrow, तत: then, गृध्रं जटायुषम् vulture Jatayu, दग्ध्वा having consigned to flames, वने in the forest, सीताम् Sita, मार्गमाण: wandering in search of, रूपेण in form, विकृतम् deformed, घोरदर्शनम् dreadful appearance, कबन्धन्नाम named Kabandha, राक्षसम् rakshasa, सन्ददर्श ह beheld.

Rama, pervaded by deep sorrow, performed funeral rites for the slain vulture Jatayu. Wandering in search of Sita, he beheld a rakshasa named Kabandha who was dreadful and deformed in appearance.

तं निहत्य महाबाहुर्ददाह स्वर्गतश्च स: ।
स चास्य कथयामास शबरीं धर्मचारिणीम् ।।1.1.56।।
श्रमणीं धर्मनिपुणामभिगच्छेति राघव । 1-1-51-

महाबाहु: mighty-armed Rama, तम् that Kabandha, निहत्य having killed, ददाह consigned him to flames, स: he (his soul), स्वर्गतश्च ascended heaven, स च Kabandha (while leaving for heavens), राघव O! Raghava, धर्मचारिणीम् performing religious duties, धर्मनिपुणाम् proficient in practising austerities duties, श्रमणीम् female ascetic, शबरीम् belonging to Sabara community, अभिगच्छ visit her, अस्य to Rama, इति कथयामास informed.

Mighty-armed Rama, having killed Kabandha, consigned his body to flames. While leaving for heavens he informed him saying "O! Raghava, There is a female ascetic in Sabara community, performing religious duties and proficient in practising austerities duties. Visit her".

सोऽभ्यगच्छन्महातेजाश्शबरीं शत्रुसूदन: ।।1.1.57।।
शबर्या पूजितस्सम्यग्रामो दशरथात्मज: ।

महातेजा: possessing great splendour, शत्रुसूदन: destroyer of enemies, स: he, शबरीम् towards Sabari, अभ्यगच्छत् had gone, दशरथात्मज: son of Dasaratha, राम: Rama, शबर्या by
Sabari, सम्यक् duly, पूजित: worshipped.

Rama, the destroyer of enemies and possessing great splendour, had himself gone to Sabari (because he is subservient to his devotees). Rama, son of Dasaratha, was duly worshipped by Sabari.

पम्पातीरे हनुमता सङ्गतो वानरेण ह ।।1.1.58।।
हनुमद्वचनाच्चैव सुग्रीवेण समागत: ।

पम्पातीरे on the bank of Pampa, वानरेण with a monkey, हनुमता named Hanuman, सङ्गत: ह was united, हनुमद्वचनात् on the advice of Hanuman, सुग्रीवेण चैव by Sugriva also, समागत: was united.

On the bank of Pampa he met a monkey named Hanuman and on his advice, he made friendship with Sugriva.

सुग्रीवाय च तत्सर्वं शंसद्रामो महाबल: ।।1.1.59।।
आदितस्तद्यथावृत्तं सीतायाश्च विशेषत: ।

महाबल: mighty and powerful, राम: Rama, आदित: right from the beginning, तत् सर्वम् all that story, विशेषत: particularly, सीतायाश्च Sita's, यथावृत्तं as it happened (abduction), सुग्रीवाय च to Sugriva, also to Hanuman, शंसत् related.

Mighty and powerful Rama related all that happened right from the beginning, more importantly Sita's abduction to Sugriva and also to Hanuman.

सुग्रीवश्चापि तत्सर्वं श्रुत्वा रामस्य वानर: ।।1.1.60।।
चकार सख्यं रामेण प्रीतश्चैवाग्निसाक्षिकम् ।

वानर: monkey, सुग्रीव: Sugriva, रामस्य Rama's, तत् सर्वम् all that story, श्रुत्वा having heard, प्रीत: pleased, अग्निसाक्षिकं चैव witnessed by Agni, god of fire, रामेण with Rama, सख्यं चकार, made a pact of friendship.

Hearing all that story from Rama, Sugriva very pleased made a pact of friendship with Rama in the presence of Agni as witness.

ततो वानरराजेन वैरानुकथनं प्रति ।।1.1.61।।
रामायावेदितं सर्वं प्रणयाद्दु:खितेन च ।

तत: thereafter, दु:खितेन by him who was filled with sorrow, वानरराजेन by the king of
monkeys, Sugriva, वैरानुकथनं प्रति his story about hostilities (with Vali), रामाय to Rama, सर्वम् entirely, प्रणयात् out of friendship, आवेदितम् was communicated.

Thereafter the king of monkeys, Sugriva, filled with sorrow communicated the entire account of his hostilities with Vali to Rama out of friendship.

प्रतिज्ञातं च रामेण तदा वालिवधं प्रति ।।1.1.62।।
वालिनश्च बलं तत्र कथयामास वानर: ।

तदा then, रामेण by Rama, वालिवधं प्रति about slaying of Vali, प्रतिज्ञातम् vowed, तत्र there, वानर: Sugriva, वालिन: Vali's, बलम् च prowess, कथयामास described.

Then Rama vowed to slay Vali. Sugriva described about Vali's prowess to him.

सुग्रीवश्शङ्कितश्चासीन्नित्यं वीर्येण राघवे ।।1.1.63।।
राघवप्रत्ययार्थं तु दुन्दुभे: कायमुत्तमम् ।
दर्शयामास सुग्रीवो महापर्वतसन्निभम् ।।1.1.64।।

सुग्रीवश्च Sugriva also, राघवे in Rama's, वीर्येण prowess, नित्यम् always, शङ्कित: आसीत् had a doubt, सुग्रीव: Sugriva, राघवप्रत्ययार्थम् with a view to get convinced about Rama, दुन्दुभे: rakshasa named Dundubhi, महापर्वतसन्निभम् resembling a high mountain, उत्तमं कायम् huge body, दर्शयामास showed.

Sugriva had a strong doubt in the prowess of Rama and with a view to get convinced, he showed him the huge dead body of Dundubhi resembling a high mountain.

उत्स्मयित्वा महाबाहु: प्रेक्ष्य चास्थि महाबल: ।
पादाङ्गुष्ठेन चिक्षेप सम्पूर्णं दशयोजनम् ।।1.1.65।।

महाबल: one endowed with strength, महाबाहु: strong-armed (Rama), अस्थि skeleton, प्रेक्ष्य having looked, उत्स्मयित्वा smiling at a depth for a while, पादाङ्गुष्ठेन with the great toe of the foot, सम्पूर्णं completely, दशयोजनम् to a distance of ten yojanas (eighty miles), चिक्षेप kicked off.

Having looked at and smiling within deeply for a while, strong-armed Rama with great strength kicked off the skeleton with the great toe of his foot completely to a distance of ten yojanas (eighty miles).

बिभेद च पुनस्सालान्सप्तैकेन महेषुणा ।
गिरिं रसातलं चैव जनयन्प्रत्ययं तथा ।।1.1.66।।

तथा then, पुनश्च again, प्रत्ययम् confidence, जनयन् creating, एकेन with one, महेषुणा mighty shaft, सप्त सालान् seven palmyra trees, गिरिम् a mountain, रसातलं चैव Rasatala (one of the seven lower worlds under the earth), बिभेद penetrated.
Then, again with a view to create confidence in Sugriva, he released a single mighty shaft which penetrated seven palmyra trees, a mountain and the Rasatala.

तत: प्रीतमनास्तेन विश्वस्तस्स महाकपि: ।
किष्किन्धां रामसहितो जगाम च गुहां तदा ।।1.1.67।।

तत: thereafter, तेन by that act, प्रीतमना: well pleased, स महाकपि: that mighty monkey Sugriva, विश्वस्त: च was convinced, रामसहित: together with Rama, तदा then, गुहाम् a cave, किष्किन्धाम् city of Kishkindha, जगाम approached.

Having seen that act and very pleased, Sugriva was convinced of the prowess of Rama and thereafter left to the city of Kishkindha which was like a cave along with Rama.

ततोऽगर्जद्धरिवर: सुग्रीवो हेमपिङ्गल: ।
तेन नादेन महता निर्जगाम हरीश्वर: ।।1.1.68।।

तत: then, हरिवर: best of monkeys, हेमपिङ्गल: yellowish hued like gold, सुग्रीव: Sugriva, अगर्जत् roared, तेन महता with great, नादेन voice, हरीश्वर: lord of monkeys (Vali), निर्जगाम came out.

On entering the city of Kishkindha, Sugriva the best of monkeys and yellowish hued like gold, roared with a great voice.There upon Vali, the lord of monkeys came out of the cave.

अनुमान्य तदा तारां सुग्रीवेण समागत: ।
निजघान च तत्रैनं शरेणैकेन राघव: ।।1.1.69।।

तदा then, ताराम् Tara (Vali's wife), अनुमान्य having convinced, सुग्रीवेण Sugriva, समागत: joined (entered into a combat), राघव: Raghava, तत्र there, एनम् him, एकेन with one, शरेण च single shaft, निजघान killed.

After convincing his wife Tara, who was dissuading him not to enter into combat with Sugriva, Vali entered into a combat with Sugriva. There, Rama killed Vali with a single shaft.

ततस्सुग्रीववचनाद्धत्वा वालिनमाहवे ।
सुग्रीवमेव तद्राज्ये राघव: प्रत्यपादयत् ।।1.1.70।।

राघव: Rama, सुग्रीववचनात् in compliance with the words of Sugriva, वालिनम् Vali, आहवे in the battle, हत्वा having killed, तत: thereafter, तद्राज्ये in that kingdom of Vali, सुग्रीवमेव Sugriva itself, प्रत्यपादयत् proposed (installed).

Having killed vali in the battle in compliance with the words of Sugriva, Rama installed Sugriva as the king.

स च सर्वान्समानीय वानरान्वानरर्षभ: ।
दिश: प्रस्थापयामास दिदृक्षुर्जनकात्मजाम् ।।1.1.71।।

स: वानरर्षभ: च the best of monkeys, Sugriva, जनकात्मजाम् Janaka's daughter, Sita, दिदृक्षु: desirous of seeing, सर्वान् all, वानरान् monkey forces, समानीय after summoning, दिश: in various directions, प्रस्थापयामास despatched.

Sugriva gathered his monkey forces and despatched them in various directions in search of Janaka's daughter Sita.

ततो गृध्रस्य वचनात्सम्पातेर्हनुमान्बली।
शतयोजनविस्तीर्णं पुप्लुवे लवणार्णवम्।।1.1.72।।

तत: thereafter, बली हनुमान् mighty Hanuman, सम्पाते: Sampathi's, गृध्रस्य vulture's, वचनात् in accordance with suggestion, शतयोजनविस्तीर्णम् extending over a hundred yojanas (about 800 miles), लवणार्णवम् salt-sea, पुप्लुवे leapt over.

In accordance with the suggestion of the vulture Sampathi, mighty Hanuman leapt over the salt-ocean extending over a hundred yojanas.

तत्र लङ्कां समासाद्य पुरीं रावणपालिताम् ।
ददर्श सीतां ध्यायन्तीमशोकवनिकां गताम् ।।1.1.73।।

रावणपालिताम् ruled by Ravana, लङ्काम् पुरीम् city of Lanka, समासाद्य having reached, तत्र there, अशोकवनिकाम् गताम् who had gone to Ashoka garden, ध्यायन्तीम् contemplating (on Rama), सीताम् Sita, ददर्श found.

Having arrived at the city of Lanka ruled by Ravana, he found Sita in the Ashoka garden meditating on Rama.

निवेदयित्वाऽऽभिज्ञानं प्रवृत्तिं च निवेद्य च ।
समाश्वास्य च वैदेहीं मर्दयामास तोरणम् ।।1.1.74।।

अभिज्ञानम् as token of recognition (Rama's ring), निवेदयित्वा having presented, प्रवृत्तिं च the entire account, निवेद्य च having related, वैदेहीम् daughter of the king of Videha with its capital at Mithila, Sita, समाश्वास्य having consoled, तोरणम् outer gate of the garden, मर्दयामास crushed.

Having delivered Rama's ring as a token of recognition and giving the entire account of incidents to Sita and consoling her, Hanuman while crushed the arch of the outer gate of the garden while leaving.

पञ्च सेनाग्रगान्हत्वा सप्तमन्त्रिसुतानपि ।
शूरमक्षं च निष्पिष्य ग्रहणं समुपागमत् ।।1.1.75।।

पञ्च सेनाग्रगान् five commanders, सप्त मन्त्रिसुतानपि seven sons of counsellors, हत्वा having killed, शूरम् valiant, अक्षं च Akshaya Kumara, son of Ravana, निष्पिष्य having stamped, ग्रहणम् समुपागमत् got caught, to be taken as captive.

Having killed five commanders, seven sons of counsellors, stamping out valiant Akshaya Kumara, the son of Ravana, Hanuman got himself captured to be taken as captive.

अस्त्रेणोन्मुक्तमात्मानं ज्ञात्वा पैतामहाद्वरात् ।
मर्षयन्राक्षसान्वीरो यन्त्रिणस्तान्यदृच्छया ।।1.1.76।।
ततो दग्ध्वा पुरीं लङ्कामृते सीतां च मैथिलीम् ।
रामाय प्रियमाख्यातुं पुनरायान्महाकपि: ।।1.1.77।।

वीर: mighty warrior, महाकपि: great monkey, Hanuman, पैतामहात् by Brahma's, वरात् boon, आत्मानम् his own self, अस्त्रेण by the weapon (given by Brahma), उन्मुक्तम् released, ज्ञात्वा coming to know, यदृच्छया casually (in the expectation of his another objective of seeing Ravana), यन्त्रिण: restrained by ropes, तान् राक्षसान् those rakshasas, मर्षयन् while enduring, तत: after completion of that act, मैथिलीम् सीतां ऋते except Sita (Mythili), लङ्कां पुरीम् the city of Lanka, दग्ध्वा having burnt, रामाय for Rama, प्रियम् welcome tidings, आख्यातुम् to deliver, पुन: आयात् returned again.

Mighty Hanuman, having come to know that he has been released from the entanglements of that weapon and by virtue of a boon given to him by Brahma, allowed himself to be restrained by the ropes for the sake of achieving his other objective of seeing Ravana. He endured many indignities caused by the rakshasas while he was being led to Ravana. Thereafter, he burnt the whole of Lanka except the
place where Sita was living and returned to deliver the good news to Rama.

सोऽधिगम्य महात्मानं कृत्वा रामं प्रदक्षिणम् ।
न्यवेदयदमेयात्मा दृष्टा सीतेति तत्त्वत: ।।1.1.78।।

अमेयात्मा possessing boundless intellect, स: he (Hanuman), महात्मानम् highly courageous, रामम् Rama, अधिगम्य having reached, प्रदक्षिणम् circumambulation, कृत्वा having made, दृष्टा seen, सीता Sita, इति in this manner, तत्त्वत: truthfully, न्यवेदयत् informed.

Having reached Rama who was highly courageous despite having been separated from Sita, and having made circumambulation to him, Hanuman, who is boundlessly intelligent informed him, "Sita has been seen".

ततस्सुग्रीवसहितो गत्वा तीरं महोदधे: ।
समुद्रं क्षोभयामास शरैरादित्यसन्निभै: ।।1.1.79।।

तत: thereafter, सुग्रीवसहित: together with Sugriva, महोदधे: तीरम् shore of mighty ocean, गत्वा having reached, आदित्यसन्निभै: resembling sharp and hot rays of sun, शरै: with shafts, समुद्रम् Samudra, lord of the waters, क्षोभयामास agitated.

Thereafter, together with Sugriva Rama reached the shore of the mighty ocean and agitated the lord of the waters with shafts resembling sharp and hot rays of sun.

दर्शयामास चात्मानं समुद्रस्सरितां पति: ।
समुद्रवचनाच्चैव नलं सेतुमकारयत् ।।1.1.80।।

सरितां पति: lord of rivers, समुद्र: Samudra, आत्मानम् in his own form, दर्शयामास appeared (to Rama), समुद्रवचनात् च एव on the advice of Samudra , नलम् through Nala, सेतुम् a bridge, अकारयत् got it built.

Samudra, lord of rivers, afraid of Rama's anger and having appeared in his own form, told him to get a bridge built through Nala.

तेन गत्वा पुरीं लङ्कां हत्वा रावणमाहवे ।
राम: सीतामनुप्राप्य परां व्रीडामुपागमत् ।।1.1.81।।

राम: Rama, तेन through that bridge, लङ्कापुरीं city of Lanka, गत्वा having reached, आहवे in the battle, रावणम् Ravana, हत्वा after slaying, सीताम् Sita, प्राप्य having recovered, अनु thereafter, पराम् great, व्रीडाम् embarassment, उपागमत् experienced (pursuant to her stay in others' house for a long time).

Rama entered the city of Lanka through that bridge. He slew Ravana in the battle and recovered Sita. Thereafter he felt greatly embarassed (for accepting his wife who stayed in others' house for a long time).

तामुवाच ततो राम: परुषं जनसंसदि ।
अमृष्यमाणा सा सीता विवेश ज्वलनं सती ।।1.1.82।।

तत: for that reason, राम: Rama, जनसंसदि in the assembly of men, ताम् about Sita, परुषम् harsh words, उवाच spoke, सती chaste, सा सीता Sita, अमृष्यमाणा incapable of enduring those words, ज्वलनं विवेश entered flaming fire.

For that reason, being slanderous, Rama spoke harsh words about Sita in the assembly of men. Sita, being chaste and incapable of enduring those words, entered flaming fire.

ततोऽग्निवचनात्सीतां ज्ञात्वा विगतकल्मषाम् ।
बभौ रामस्सम्प्रहृष्ट: पूजितस्सर्वदैवतै: ।।1.1.83।।

तत: thereafter, अग्निवचनात् because of the testimony of fire-god, सीताम् Sita, विगतकल्मषाम् sinless, ज्ञात्वा having known, राम: Rama, सम्प्रहृष्ट: exceedingly pleased, सर्वदैवतै: by all gods, पूजित: was adored, बभौ shone.

With the of testimony of fire-god, knowing that Sita was sinless, Rama was exceedingly pleased. Having been adored by all gods he shone in all splendour.

कर्मणा तेन महता त्रैलोक्यं सचराचरम् ।
सदेवर्षिगणं तुष्टं राघवस्य महात्मन: ।।1.1.84।।

महात्मन: of highly courageous, राघवस्य Rama's, तेन महता कर्मणा by that great act, सचराचरम् all the animate and inanimate beings, सदेवर्षिगणम् including groups of gods and sages, त्रैलोक्यम् in three worlds, तुष्टम् well-pleased.

By this great and highly courageous act of Rama, all the animate and inanimate beings, groups of gods and sages in three worlds were very pleased.

अभिषिच्य च लङ्कायां राक्षसेन्द्रं विभीषणम् ।
कृतकृत्यस्तदा रामो विज्वर: प्रमुमोद ह ।।1.1.85।।

राम: Rama, विभीषणम् Vibhisana, राक्षसेन्द्रम् king of rakshasas, लङ्कायाम् in the city of
Lanka, अभिषिच्य coronated, तदा then, कृतकृत्य: having accomplished his objective, विज्वर: free from distress, प्रमुमोद ह was exceedingly rejoiced.

After coronating the rakshasa chief Vibhisana in the city of Lanka, Rama free from distress exceedingly rejoiced after having accomplished his objective.
देवताभ्यो वरं प्राप्य समुत्थाप्य च वानरान् ।
अयोध्यां प्रस्थितो राम: पुष्पकेण सुहृद्वृत: ।।1.1.86।।

राम: Rama, देवताभ्य: from devatas, वरम् boon, प्राप्य having obtained, वानरान् monkeys fallen in the battle, समुत्थाप्य च revived, सुहृद्वृत: accompanied by friends, पुष्पकेण by Pushpaka, the aerial car, अयोध्याम् Ayodhya, प्रस्थित: set out.

Rama, having obtained a boon from devatas who had come to see him, revived all monkeys fallen in the battle and set out to Ayodhya accompanied by friends in the aerial car named Pushpaka.

भरद्वाजाश्रमं गत्वा रामस्सत्यपराक्रम: ।
भरतस्यान्तिकं रामो हनूमन्तं व्यसर्जयत् ।।1.1.87।।

सत्यपराक्रम: steadfast in truth, राम: delightful to everybody, भरद्वाजाश्रमम् hermitage of Bharadwaja, गत्वा having gone, भरतस्यान्तिकम् to the presence of Bharata, हनूमन्तम् Hanuman, राम: Rama, व्यसर्जयत् despatched.

Having gone to the hermitage of Bharadwaja, Rama who is steadfast in truth and delightful to everybody, despatched Hanuman to Bharata as his messenger.

पुनराख्यायिकां जल्पन्सुग्रीवसहितश्च स: ।
पुष्पकं तत्समारुह्य नन्दिग्रामं ययौ तदा ।।1.1.88।।

पुन: again, सुग्रीवसहित: accompanied by Sugriva, स: Rama, आख्यायिकाम् recalling earlier incidents, जल्पन् conversing with each other, तदा then, तत् पुष्पकं समारुह्य mounting on that Pushpaka, नन्दिग्रामम् to Nandigrama, ययौ departed.

Again accompanied by Sugriva and recalling earlier incidents and conversing with each other, Rama departed to Nandigrama mounting on that Pushpaka chariot.

नन्दिग्रामे जटां हित्वा भ्रातृभिस्सहितोऽनघ: ।
रामस्सीतामनुप्राप्य राज्यं पुनरवाप्तवान् ।।1.1.89।।

अनघ: sinless, राम: Rama, नन्दिग्रामे in Nandigrama, भ्रातृभि: सहित: along with his brothers,
जटाम् matted lock, हित्वा shedding, सीताम् Sita, अनुप्राप्य having regained, राज्यम् kingdom, पुन: again, अवाप्तवान् got (back).

Sinless Rama, having arrived at Nandigrama, met his brothers. They shed their matted locks. Having regained Sita, Rama got back his kingdom.

प्रहृष्टमुदितो लोकस्तुष्ट: पुष्टस्सुधार्मिक: ।
निरामयो ह्यरोगश्च दुर्भिक्षभयवर्जित: ।।1.1.90।।

लोक: entire world, प्रहृष्टमुदित: rejoiced with happiness, तुष्ट: contended (because of fulfillment of their desire), पुष्ट: grown in strength because of happiness, सुधार्मिक: with righteousness, निरामय: without sufferings or agonies, अरोग: without diseases, दुर्भिक्षभयवर्जित: च and without fear of famine.

On seeing Rama occupying the throne, the entire world rejoiced with happiness. Their desire that Rama should become the king having been fulfilled, they were contended. Because of the happy state of mind, they had grown in strength. All people were following the path of righteousness. There was no fear of sufferings or agonies, diseases or famine.

न पुत्रमरणं किञ्चिद्द्रक्ष्यन्ति पुरुषा: क्वचित् ।
नार्यश्चाविधवा नित्यं भविष्यन्ति पतिव्रता: ।।1.1.91।।

पुरुषा: men, क्वचित् any where, किञ्चित् even little, पुत्रमरणम् death of ones's own son, न द्रक्ष्यन्ति will not see, नार्यश्च women, अविधवा: will not be widowed, नित्यम् always, पतिव्रता: भविष्यन्ति will be devoted to their husbands.

During the period of Rama's rule, nowhere men would witness the death of their sons, women were never widowed and they were always chaste and devoted to their husbands.

न चाग्निजं भयं किञ्चिन्नाप्सु मज्जन्ति जन्तव: ।
न वातजं भयं किञ्चिन्नापि ज्वरकृतं तथा ।।1.1.92।।
न चापि क्षुद्भयं तत्र न तस्करभयं तथा ।

तत्र in that kingdom of Rama, अग्निजं भयम् fear due to fire, किञ्चित् न not even little, जन्तव: creatures, अप्सु in water, न मज्जन्ति will not be drowned, वातजं भयम् danger due to wind, किञ्चित् न not even little, तथा and, ज्वरकृतम् अपि न also no fear from fever, न क्षुद्भयम् अपि no fear from hunger, तथा and, तस्करभयं न no fear from thieves.

In that kingdom of Rama, there was no fear or death due to fire, water, wind, disease, hunger and also there was no fear from thieves.

नगराणि च राष्ट्राणि धनधान्ययुतानि च ।।1.1.93।।
नित्यं प्रमुदितास्सर्वे यथा कृतयुगे तथा ।

नगराणि च cities, राष्ट्राणि च villages, धनधान्ययुतानि rich in food grains and wealth, यथा कृतयुगे as in kritayuga, तथा in the same way, सर्वे all, नित्यम् ever, प्रमुदिता: were happy.

All the cities and villages were affluent with wealth and food grains. People lived happily as though they lived in Kritayuga.

अश्वमेधशतैरिष्ट्वा तथा बहुसुवर्णकै: ।।1.1.94।।
गवां कोट्ययुतं दत्वा ब्रह्मलोकं प्रयास्यति ।
असंख्येयं धनं दत्वा ब्राह्मणेभ्यो महायशा: ।।1.1.95।।

महायशा: highly renowned, अश्वमेधशतै: by hundreds of Aswamedha sacrifices, तथा and बहुसुवर्णकै: Bahusuvarnaka sacrifices (where gold is given as charity on large scale),
इष्ट्वा satisfying the gods, गवाम् cows, कोट्ययुतम् hundreds of thousands, दत्वा having bestowed, असंख्येयम् countless, धनम् wealth, ब्राह्मणेभ्य: for brahmins, दत्वा having bestowed, ब्रह्मलोकं प्रयास्यति will proceed to Brahmaloka.

Highly renowned Rama, having performed hundreds of Aswamedha sacrifices and Bahusuvarnaka sacrifices and satisfying the gods, bestowing hundreds of thousands of cows and immense wealth on the brahmins, will return to Brahmaloka.

राजवंशान्शतगुणान्स्थापयिष्यति राघव: ।
चातुर्वर्ण्यं च लोकेऽस्मिन् स्वे स्वे धर्मे नियोक्ष्यति ।।1.1.96।।

राघव: Rama, अस्मिन् लोके in this world, शतगुणान् hundred times, राजवंशान् royal dynasties, स्थापयिष्यति will establish, चातुर्वर्ण्यम् four castes, स्वे स्वे in their respective, धर्मे duties, नियोक्ष्यति will employ.

Rama will establish hundredfold royal dynasties and employ the four castes to do their respective duties, in this world.

दशवर्षसहस्राणि दशवर्षशतानि च ।
रामो राज्यमुपासित्वा ब्रह्मलोकं प्रयास्यति ।। 1.1.97।।

राम: Rama, दशवर्षसहस्राणि for ten thousand years, दशवर्षशतानि च ten hundred years, राज्यम्
kingdom, उपासित्वा reigning, ब्रह्मलोकम् Brahmaloka, प्रयास्यति will attain.

Rama, reigning the kingdom for ten thousand and ten hundred years, will attain Brahmaloka.

इदं पवित्रं पापघ्नं पुण्यं वेदैश्च सम्मितम् ।
य: पठेद्रामचरितं सर्वपापै: प्रमुच्यते ।।1.1.98।।

इदं रामचरितम् this story of Rama, पवित्रम् sacred, पापघ्नम् destroyer of sins, पुण्यम् auspicious, वेदै: by vedas, सम्मितं च equal to, य: who, पठेत् reads, सर्वपापै: from all sins, प्रमुच्यते will be released.

This story of Rama is sacred and brings auspiciousness, destroys sins and is equal to vedas. Whosoever reads it will be freed from all sins.

एतदाख्यानमायुष्यं पठन्रामायणं नर: ।
सपुत्रपौत्रस्सगण: प्रेत्य स्वर्गे महीयते ।। 1.1.99।। 1-1-92-

एतद् रामायणम् this Ramayana, आख्यानम् true meaning, आयुष्यम् longevity, पठन् reading, नर: men, सपुत्रपौत्र: with sons and grandsons, सगण: with servants and relations, प्रेत्य after death, स्वर्गे in heavens, महीयते worshipped.

This legendary story known as Ramayana enhances longetivity. Those who read it with the true meaning and understand it will be worshipped in heavens after their death along with their sons and grandsons, servants and relations.

पठन्द्विजो वागृषभत्वमीयात्
स्यात्क्षत्रियो भूमिपतित्वमीयात् ।
वणिग्जन: पण्यफलत्वमीयात्
जनश्च शूद्रोऽपि महत्वमीयात् ।।1.1.100।।

पठन् जन: People by reading this, द्विज: स्यात् if he is a brahmin, वागृषभत्वम् proficient in the eighteen branches of learning, ईयात् attains, क्षत्रिय: kshatriya, भूमिपतित्वम् lordship over landed possessions, ईयात् gets, वणिग्जनः vaisya, पण्यफलत्वम् fruits of his merit, ईयात् gets, जनश्च men, शूद्रोऽपि sudra also, महत्वम् greatness, ईयात् attains.

A brahmin becomes proficient in the eighteen branches of learning; a kshatriya gets lordship over landed possessions; a vaisya gets fruit of his merits and even a sudra attains greatness by reading Ramayana.

इत्यार्षे श्रीमद्रामायणे वाल्मीकीय आदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे (श्रीमद्रामायणकथासङ्क्षेपो नाम) प्रथम: सर्ग:।।

इति thus, आर्षे declared by rishi, श्रीमद्रामायणे in the holy Ramayana, आदिकाव्ये in the first poem, बालकाण्डे in the Balakanda, संक्षेपो नाम named "Samkshepa", प्रथम: सर्ग: end of first sarga.

This is the end of first sarga of the Balakanda of holy Ramayana known as "Samkshepa" (Synopsis) of the first poem declared by the rishi.


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Valmiki Ramayan - Translation
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